References & Citations
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1. Dust from deserts/volcanos is the source of iron for 98 % of the ocean i.e. that portion of the ocean not associated with a continental shelf.
Mahowald, N.M. et al. (2005) Atmospheric global dust cycle and iron inputs to the ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 19, GB4025. doi:10.1029/2004GB002402
Olgun, N. et al. (2011) Surface ocean iron fertilization: The role of airborne volcanic ash from subduction zone and hot spot volcanoes and related iron flues into the Pacific Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25, GB4001. Doi:10.1029/2009GB003761
2. Studies of sediment cores have shown that natural dust deposition was substantially higher during the last ice age.
Maher, B.A. et al. (2010) Global connections between Aeolian dust, climate and ocean biogeochemistry at the present day and at the last glacial maximum. Earth Science Reviews, 99, 61-97. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2009.12.001
3. Over the past half-century we have seen a decline in atmospheric dust from northern Asia, notably in the Gobi and Taklimakan deserts – important sources of dust for the North Pacific Ocean.
Sun, J., Zhang, Mingying., Liu, T. (2001) Spatial and temporal characteristics of dust storms in China and its surrounding regions, 1960-1999: Relations to source area and climate. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(D10), 325-333.
Xiao, F., Shou, C., Liao, Y. (2008) Dust storms evolution in Talkimakan Desert and its correlation with climatic parameters. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 18, 415-424. doi:10.1007/s11442-008-0415-8
4. Models show humans and climate change may have caused a 9-24% decrease in mineral aerosols since pre-industrial times, and predict a further decrease from 20- 60% by 2090.
Mahowald, N.M. and Luo, Chao. (2003) A less dusty future? Geophysical Research Letters, 30(17) 1903-1906. doi: 10.1029/2003GL017880
5. Similarly we have observed a significant decline in Phytoplankton over this century, an average of 1% of the global median per year.
Boyce, D.G., Lewis, M.R., Worm, B. (2010) Global phytoplankton decline over the past century. Nature, 466, 591-596. doi:10.1038/nature09268
6. Phytoplankton is the base of the food chain and has a significant effect on global atmospheric CO2 and O2 conditions, in fact they account for over ½ of global photosynthesis, despite their decline.
Falkowski, P. (2012) Ocean Science: The power of plankton. Nature, 483, S17-S20. doi:10.1038/483S17a
Field, C.B. et al. (1998) Primary Production of the Bioshpere: Integrating Terrestrial and Oceanic Components. Science, 281, 237-240. doi:10.1126/science.281.5374.237
Sheldon, R.W., Sutcliffe, W.H.Jr., Paranjape, M.A. (1977) Structure of pelagic food chain and relationship between plankton and fish production. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 34:2344-2353
7. Phytoplankton recovers quickly when iron is added
Hamme, R.C. et al. (2010) Volcanic ash fuels anomalous plankton bloom in subarctic northeast Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L19604. doi:10.1029/2012GL044629
Bishop, J.K.B., Davis, R.E., Sherman, J.T. (2002) Robotic Observations of Dust Storm Enhancement of Carbon Biomass in the North Pacific. Science, 298(5594), 817-821.
8. Natural iron deposition events have shown to greatly benefit marine ecosystems and were responsible for the large Fraser River sockeye salmon run of 2010
Parsons, T.R. and Whitney, F.A. (2012) Did volcanic ash from Mt. Kasatoshi in 2008 contribute to a phenomenal increase in Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in 2010? Fisheries Oceanography, 21(5) 374-377. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2419.2012.00630.x
9. Once Carbon reaches 500m depth it is sequestered for at least 500 years.
DFO. 2010. Ocean Fertilization: Mitigating Environmental Impacts of Future Scientific Research. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2010/012.
10. Previous estimates state that at least 15% of the organic matter produced in the ocean each year makes it to the deep sea.
Laws. E.A. et al. (2000) Temperature effects on export production in the open ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 1231-1246.
11. There is evidence that current estimates severely underestimate the efficiency of the biological carbon pump as they do not account for vertical migration and underestimate active flux. Active transport by seasonal and diel zooplankton migration is a carbon flux that bypasses sediment traps within migratory range in the mesopelagic zone.
Hernández-León, S. et al. (2010) Carbon sequestration and zooplankton lunar cycles: Could we be missing a major component of the biological pump? Limnology and Oceanography, 55(6) 2503-2512. Doi:10.4319/lo.2010.55.6.2503
Steinberg, D.K. et al. (2008) A comparison of mesopelagic mesozooplankton community structure in the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Research II, 55, 1615-1635
12. A recent experiment shows that 50% of the biomass of an iron fertilized bloom will reach 1000m, and hence will be sequestered for hundreds of years. Significant amounts will reach the sediment and hence will be sequestered for millennia to geologic timescales.
Smetacek, V. et al. (2012) Deep carbon export from a Southern Ocean iron-fertilized diatom bloom. Nature, 487, 313-319. doi:10.1038/nature11229
13. Research suggests that, on the basis of cancelled emissions, every ton of carbon sequestered in the ocean compensates for 1.2 tons of carbon emissions to the atmosphere on a 100-year timescale.
Oschlies, A. et al. (2010) Side effects and accounting aspects of hypothetical large-scale Southern Ocean iron fertilization. Biogeosciences, 7, 4017-4035. doi:10.5194/bg-7-4017-2010
14. Nutrient Fertilization is an established DFO policy for salmon enhancement – though their work focuses entirely on lakes.
Hyatt, K.D. McQueen D.J. Shortreed K.S. Rankin D.P. (2004) Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) nursery lake fertilization: Review and summary of results. Environmental Reviews, 12(3), 133-162. doi:10.1139/a04-008
Hume, J.M.B. et al. (2003) Evaluation of Restoration Efforts on the 1996 Upper Adams River sockeye salmon run. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2466, Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
15. The number of returning salmon is entirely dependent on marine survival.
McKinnell, S.M. et al. (2001) The Demise of Owikeno Lake Sockeye Salmon. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 21, 774-791.